A third one, Tocharian C, is attested in a few loanwords in Gāndhārī (see sounds). In addition, four subjunctive classes differ from the corresponding indicative classes, two "special subjunctive" classes with differing suffixes and two "varying subjunctive" classes with root ablaut reflecting the PIE perfect. Documents date back to AD 500–700. Chinese had little influence (a few weights and measures and the name of at least one month). Benjamin W. Fortson: Indo-European Language and Culture. The vocabulary shows the influence of Iranian and, later, Sanskrit (the latter language particularly was the source of Buddhist terminology). The first successful attempt at grammatical analysis and translation was made by the German scholars Emil Sieg and Wilhelm Siegling in 1908 in an article that also established the presence of the two languages (sometimes referred to as dialects), provisionally called A and B. , The oldest extant manuscripts in Tocharian B are now dated to the 5th or even late 4th century AD, making Tocharian a language of Late Antiquity contemporary with Gothic, Classical Armenian and Primitive Irish. Leiden/Boston: Brill (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8).  It soon became apparent that a large proportion of the manuscripts were translations of known Buddhist works in Sanskrit and some of them were even bilingual, facilitating decipherment of the new language. The following table lists the reconstructed phonemes in Tocharian along with their standard transcription. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It soon became clear that these fragments were actually written in two distinct but related languages belonging to a hitherto unknown branch of Indo-European, now known as Tocharian: Prakrit documents from 3rd-century Krorän and Niya on the southeast edge of the Tarim Basin contain loanwords and names that appear to come from a closely related language, referred to as Tocharian C., The discovery of Tocharian upset some theories about the relations of Indo-European languages and revitalized their study. or Tokharian languages Two extinct Indo European languages, Tocharian A and Tocharian B, formerly spoken in the Tarim River Basin in China. Author of. With regard to the two Tocharian languages themselves, it is possible that Tocharian A was, at the time of documentation, a dead liturgical language preserved in the Buddhist monasteries in the east, whereas Tocharian B was a living language in the west (note that commercial or at least nonliturgical documents are found in that dialect). Class vi is not so much a coherent class as an "irregular" class with all verbs not fitting in other categories. On the basis of the Sanskrit name this language is sometimes referred to as Agnean, though we do not have any direct or conclusive evidence as to what the speakers themselves called it. Furthermore, Tocharian A may have already been extinct at the time Tocharian B was being used, though texts of both A and B have been discovered. Mood: indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative. , Nevertheless, it remains the standard term for the language of the Tarim Basin manuscripts. To a lesser extent Tocharian appears to share certain features with Balto-Slavic and Greek. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Old Chinese *mjit (蜜; mì) "honey", from proto-Tocharian *ḿət(ə) (where *ḿ is palatalized; cf. It has been devised that Tocharian A was used as a poetic and liturgical language, whereas Tocharian B was used as a more ofﬁcial, administrative language. Latin Catō (genitive Catōnis) literally "the sly one" < catus "sly", Greek Plátōn literally "the broad-shouldered one" < platús "broad".. This new data firmly establishes the existence of a Tocharian language in the Lop Nor Basin. Though quite similar, Tocharian A … They are now extinct. The apparent self-designation ārśi appears in Tocharian A texts.  Definitions of Tocharian_languages, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Tocharian_languages, analogical dictionary of Tocharian_languages (English) For example, the Tocharian word yakwe (Toch B), yuk (Toch A) "horse" < PIE *eḱwos is declined as follows:. A given verb belongs to one of a large number of classes, according to its conjugation.  Ptolemy's Tócharoi are often associated by modern scholars with the Yuezhi of Chinese historical accounts, who founded the Kushan empire. Category:xto:All topics: Tocharian A terms organized by topic, such as "Family" or "Chemistry". They were spoken on the northern side of the Tarim Basin (now in Xinjiang, China ). The German name Tocharisch was proposed (see The “Tocharian problem”), and the language was demonstrated to be Indo-European. The most reasonable likelihood for the hybridisation process is that a specific group took over other groups, and they all adopted the most dominant language variant whilst also picking up influences from the later arrivals. The pre-Tocharian adjective is derived from the simple u-stem while the pre-Latin adjective is derived from the corresponding abstract/collective *h a … Documents from ad 500–700 attest to two: Tocharian A, from the area of Turfan in the east; and Tocharian B, chiefly from the region of Kucha in the west but also from the Turfan area. In that sense, Tocharian (to some extent like the Greek and the Anatolian languages) seems to have been an isolate in the "satem" (i.e. ; Category:Terms derived from Tocharian A: Categories with terms derived from Tocharian A in various specific languages. Tocharian as an archaic dialect. Likewise, some of the verb classes show independent origins, e.g. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. However, lexicostatistical and glottochronological approaches suggest the Anatolian languages, including Hittite, might be the closest relatives of Tocharian. The Tocharian alphabet also has letters representing all of the remaining Sanskrit sounds, but these appear only in Sanskrit loanwords and are not thought to have had distinct pronunciations in Tocharian. There also exist 3rd-century Loulan Gāndhārī Prakrit documents that appear to borrow words from a closely related language referred to as Tocharian C, theoreticized by Klaus T. Schmidt. Tocharian A has no descendants or varieties listed in Wiktionary's language data modules. Tocharian is indeed interesting. In terms of geography, Tocharian is the easternmost of all the ancient Indo-European languages. Tocharian is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 8th century (with a few earlier ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim Basin. The imperative likewise shows 6 classes, with a unique set of endings, found only in the second person, and a prefix beginning with p-. Douglas Q. Adams, "On the Development of the Tocharian Verbal System". Tocharian A is the easternmost Indo-European language, being spoken in ancient times in city-oases of Central Asia. The first Tocharian manuscripts were discovered in the 1890s. Furthermore, each set of endings comes with both active and mediopassive forms. (Eds.) As a result, it has been suggested that Tocharian A was a liturgical language, no longer spoken natively, while Tocharian B was the spoken language of the entire area. Introduction to Tocharian Ronald I. Kim Adam Mickiewicz University firstname.lastname@example.org 1.  They are known from manuscripts dating from the 5th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China) and the Lop Desert. There are also the middle ('classicalʼ), and the late stage. Category:xto:All topics: Tocharian A terms organized by topic, such as "Family" or "Chemistry". I: Athematic without suffix < PIE root athematic. The result was a new hypothesis, following the wave model of Johannes Schmidt, suggesting that the satem isogloss represents a linguistic innovation in the central part of the Proto-Indo-European home range, and the centum languages along the eastern and the western peripheries did not undergo that change. The discovery of Tocharian contributed to doubts that Proto-Indo-European had originally split into western and eastern branches; today, the centum–satem division is not seen as a real familial division.. (2009).   The theory is supported by the discovery of translations of Tocharian texts into Uyghur. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. However, in both of these latter cases the liturgical language is the linguistic ancestor of the spoken language, whereas no such relationship holds between Tocharian A and B. Thus, Sieg and Siegling’s identification of the Tocharian language family and the classical Tocharoi remains most speculative, though the designation Tocharian seems fixed nonetheless. Language. The precise nature of the variants in Tocharian B has been the issue of a long debate. Home; Books; Search; Support. (Ed.) Fasmer, M. The etymological dictionary of the Russian language. Tocharian B, however, is found throughout the range and in both religious and secular texts. The present-tense endings are almost completely divergent between Tocharian A and B. "The Word for ‘Honey’ in Chinese, Tocharian and Sino-Vietnamese." The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑːriən/), also known as Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family spoken by inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, the Tocharians. Meier, Kristin and Peyrot, Michaël. Most of attested Tocharian was written in the Tocharian alphabet, a derivative of the Brahmi alphabetic syllabary (abugida) also referred to as North Turkestan Brahmi or slanting Brahmi. , Phonetically, Tocharian languages are "centum" Indo-European languages, meaning that they merge the palatovelar consonants (*ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ) of Proto Indo-European with the plain velars (*k, *g, *gʰ) rather than palatalizing them to affricates or sibilants. The Tocharian languages are important objects of study for two principal reasons: first, they offer a window into the spread of Buddhism beyond the more well-studied confines of India and Southeast Asia; and second, they bring a new perspective to our understanding of the language of the Indo-Europeans and the migrations of subgroups of this population. Tocharian is not closely related to other branches of Indo-European. In Indo-European languages: Tocharian …are known, labeled A (East Tocharian, or Turfanian) and B (West Tocharian, or Kuchean). Oorspronkelijk: LAAT ME NU TOCH NIET ALLEEN. , In 1938, Walter Henning found the term "four twγry" used in early 9th-century manuscripts in Sogdian, Middle Iranian and Uighur. There were three known languages in the branch, named A, B and C. References 2001. , Tocharian A is found only in the eastern part of the Tocharian-speaking area, and all extant texts are of a religious nature. Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian (/ t ə ˈ k ɛər i ən / or / t ə ˈ k ɑːr i ən / ；Chinese: 吐火羅語), is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family, known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China). An Introduction. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Both are adjectives of appurtenance with *-to-. The Berlin collection includes both languages, whereas all other manuscripts discovered were in B. Especially noteworthy is the wide development of the mediopassive form in r (as in Italic and Celtic)—e.g., Tocharian A klyoṣtär, B klyaustär ‘is heard.’ The third person plural preterite (past) ends in -r, similar to Latin and Sanskrit perfect forms and the Hittite preterite. palatovelar to sibilant) phonetic regions of Indo-European-speaking populations. Writing was found from around the 5th century to the 8th century AD. The Tocharian verb reflects the Indo-European verbal system both in stem formations and in personal endings.  The only cases inherited from the proto-language are nominative, genitive, accusative, and (in Tocharian B only) vocative; in Tocharian the old accusative is known as the oblique case. Besides the Buddhist and Manichaean religious texts, there were also monastery correspondence and accounts, commercial documents, caravan permits, medical and magical texts, and one love poem. In addition, most PIE sets of endings are found in some form in Tocharian (although with significant innovations), including thematic and athematic endings, primary (non-past) and secondary (past) endings, active and mediopassive endings, and perfect endings. Vertaling: LAAT ME NU TOCH NIET ALLEEN door Johan Verminnen. Tocharian verbs are conjugated in the following categories:. Moscow, 1986. The Tocharians were an fascinating ancient Indo-European people living in western China, modern Xinjiang. Holm, Hans J.  On September 15 and 16, 2019, a group of linguists led by Georges Pinault and Michaël Peyrot met in Leiden to examine Schmidt's transcriptions and the original texts, and concluded they had all been transcribed entirely incorrectly. Tocharian forms an independent branch of the Indo-European language family not closely related to other neighbouring Indo-European languages (Indo-Aryan and Iranian). Tocharian is, at its core, a centum language - just like Indo-European languages in the west - despite its Far Eastern setting. This includes the root ablaut of subjunctive classes i and v, which tend to co-occur with imperative class i. or Tokharian languages Two extinct Indo European languages, Tocharian A and Tocharian B, formerly spoken in the Tarim River Basin in China. Though being the easternmost subphylum of IE, Tocharian is centum (see introduction). Home; Books; Search; Support. Get Book . Tocharian literature is Buddhistic in content, consisting largely of translations or free adaptations of Jātakas, of Avadānas, and of philosophical, didactic, and canonical works. The discovery of this language family in the early 20th century contradicted the formerly prevalent idea of an east–west division of the Indo-European language family on the centum–satem isogloss, and prompted reinvigorated study of the family. Tocharian languages, Tocharian also spelled Tokharian, small group of extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Tarim River Basin (in the centre of the modern Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) during the latter half of the 1st millennium ad. The Tocharian languages were a branch of the Indo-European languages. , Based on 3rd-century Loulan Gāndhārī Prakrit documents containing Tocharian loanwords such as kilme 'district', ṣoṣthaṃga 'tax collector', and ṣilpoga 'document', T. Burrow suggested in the 1930s the existence of a third Tocharian language, which has been labelled Tocharian C or "Kroränian", "Krorainic", or "Lolanisch". The Tocharian A instrumental case rarely occurs with humans. This, coupled with its geographical location, came as a shock to the historical linguistics community. Tocharian denotes two closely related languages of the Indo-European family, denoted simply Tocharian A and Tocharian B. Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑːriən/), is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family. Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. Yānqí, Uyg. Old Persian tuxāri-, Khotanese ttahvāra, and Sanskrit tukhāra), and proposed the name "Tocharian" (German Tocharisch). Tocharian A and B are significantly different, to the point of being mutually unintelligible. The Tocharian word is PIE *h a ekuto- (with the common transfer to the yo-stems) while Latin reflects *h a ekuh a to-.  The majority of Proto-Indo-European verbal classes and categories are represented in some manner in Tocharian, although not necessarily with the same function. In later times their ruling elite used a form of Iranian as a written language but what their original language may have been remains uncertain. There were three known languages in … Kùchē) in the west, Qarašahr (Chin. (That the native language of Loulan was Tocharian was first suggested by Thomas Burrow in his The Language of the Kharoṣṭhī Documents from Chinese Turkestan, 1937.) Blackwell Publishing, Malden MA u. a. One group of travel permits for caravans can be dated to the early 7th century, and it appears that other texts date from the same or from neighbouring centuries. Discovery and documentation ... sure which language(s) the famed mummies spoke. Het eerste deel van dit stuk kan worden gezongen door een solist, een kleine groep vrouwen, of alle vrouwen. Agni) in the middle, and Turfan (Chin. Kucha - Wikipedia These findings are associated with the ancient Tocharians and Tocharian languages. VII: Athematic with infixed nasal, from PIE infixed nasal verbs. In phonology, Tocharian differs greatly from almost all other Indo-European languages in that all the Indo-European stops of each series fall together, resulting in a system of three (voiceless) stops, p, t, and k (the same merger is found, independently, in some Anatolian languages). It is known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China). The Historical Phonetics of Tocharian languages. In Ramat, Giacalone Anna and Paolo Ramat (eds). These languages became known to scholars… Proto-Tocharian is a reconstructed language. Most are conjugated identically to the corresponding indicative classes; indicative and subjunctive are distinguished by the fact that a verb in a given indicative class will usually belong to a different subjunctive class. The mediopassive still reflects the distinction between primary -r and secondary -i, effaced in most Indo-European languages. The bulk of the Tocharian materials were carried to Berlin by the Prussian expeditions of 1903–04 and 1906–07, which explored the Turfan area, and to Paris by a French expedition of 1906–09, which investigated chiefly in the area of Kucha. In 1907, Emil Sieg and Friedrich W. K. Müller guessed that this referred to the newly discovered language of the Turpan area. Most of the attested cases are built up by the addition of postpositions to the oblique (accusative) form. This naming has remained, although the names Agnean and Kuchean have been proposed as a replacement. The hypothesized relationship of Tocharian A and B as liturgical and spoken forms, respectively, is sometimes compared with the relationship between Latin and the modern Romance languages, or Classical Chinese and Mandarin. Tocharian A. noun Date: 1926 the eastern dialect of Tocharian — see Indo-European languages table. A claimed find of ten Tocharian C texts written in Kharoṣṭhī script has been discredited. (See also Thursday’s lecture.) Its words and roots are not directly attested in any written works, but have been reconstructed through the comparative method, which finds regular similarities between languages that cannot be explained by coincidence or word-borrowing, and extrapolates ancient forms from these similarities.. In contrast, the verb verbal conjugation system is quite conservative. Because Tocharian is written in an alphabet used originally for Sanskrit and its descendants, the transcription of the sounds is directly based on the transcription of the corresponding Sanskrit sounds. Moscow, 1984. 2. Tense/aspect (in the indicative only): present, preterite, imperfect. A common Proto-Tocharian language must precede the attested languages by several centuries, probably dating to the late 1st millennium BC. Zweite Auflage. These languages became known to scholars… SSAATB. Tocharian A and its sister language, Tocharian B, were Indo-European languages spoken until approximately the ninth century in Xīnjiāng (Chinese Turkestan, Northeastern China); together, they form an independent branch of Indo-European. Third, Tocharian has grammatical features that resemble Italic, Celtic, and Germanic (i.e., northwest European languages) more than they do the other branches of IE. The most complex system is the present indicative, consisting of 12 classes, 8 thematic and 4 athematic, with distinct sets of thematic and athematic endings. A body of loanwords and names found in Prakrit documents from the Lop Nor basin have been dubbed Tocharian C (Kroränian). The Turfan and Tarim Basins were populated by speakers of Tocharian languages, with "Europoid" mummies found in the region. The language of Kucha, as evidenced by surviving manuscripts and inscriptions, was Kuśiññe (Kushine) also known as Tocharian B or West Tocharian, an Indo-European language. In fact, from a phonological perspective Tocharian B is significantly more conservative than Tocharian A, and serves as the primary source for reconstructing Proto-Tocharian. These are important source materials for information on the social, economic, and political life of Central Asia. , Most scholars reject Walter Bruno Henning's proposed link to Gutian, a language spoken on the Iranian plateau in the 22nd century BC and known only from personal names.. In: Mair V.H. , Tocharian A and B are significantly different, to the point of being mutually unintelligible. , A colophon to a Buddhist manuscript in Old Turkish from 800 AD states that it was translated from Sanskrit via a twγry language. Notes for Dictionary: general - Common Tocharian or Tocharian A words italic - Tocharian B words á, í, ú - long [a], [i] and [u] sounds ç - a sound like in Sanskrit açva or in English cashier ä - a sound similar to German Käse (cheese) or English band ñ - a soft [n'] sound s' - palatal [s] usually written as a little line over it n., m., r., s. - cerebral sounds New Collegiate Dictionary. Other articles where Tocharian A is discussed: Indo-European languages: Tocharian: …are known, labeled A (East Tocharian, or Turfanian) and B (West Tocharian, or Kuchean). Edition: E. Sieg and Siegling (1921a): 8-9. LAAT ME NU TOCH NIET ALLEEN by Johan Verminnen. Information about Tocharian: Edit family data; Canonical name: Tocharian: Aliases: Tokharian; Family code: ine-toc: Common ancestor: Proto-Tocharian: Parent family: Indo-European; Wikidata: Q37029: Subcategories. Became known to scholars… Tocharian Online Lesson 1 Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum Proto-Indo-European: a Brief Overview Corrections. Agnean and Kuchean have been proposed as a shock to the region variants in Tocharian B have the same of! Appearance of Sieg and Friedrich W. K. Müller guessed that this referred to the stage... The Agnean language. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Text- und Sprachmaterialien ( TITUS ): 8-9 ( ). 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Religious and secular texts, with `` Europoid '' mummies found in western China, Xinjiang. Age and early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia of Eastern Asia!